Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Power Transformers - An Indian Scenario

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.main##

P. Thomas

Abstract

The Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) one of the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) has been used as dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors, as plasticizers and in hydraulic fluids. Though PCBs never produced in India, the usage of PCB oils began in 1960 in India and PCBs have been imported mainly for transformers and capacitors applications. The imported PCBs-containing electrical devices were mostly distributed in large enterprises and the rest were distributed in the electrical power sector. The transformers that were installed prior to 1985 was identified and analyzed using GC/ECD technique. Around 1617 transformers are found to containing PCBs and out of which, 1150 transformers are declared as pure PCBs filled Transformers. From the analysis carried out on the 467 transformers, 225 were containing >500 ppm of PCBs and the remaining 242 transformers containing < 500ppm of PCBs. The major sector that owns PCBs containing equipment is the power sector (71%) followed by the steel industries (18%). The total weight of the PCBs oils and PCB contaminated oil is around 10,000 tons, which is being updated.

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.details##

How to Cite
Thomas, P. (2017). Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Power Transformers - An Indian Scenario. Power Research - A Journal of CPRI, 621–628. Retrieved from https://www.cprijournal.in/index.php/pr/article/view/1028

References

  1. USEPA, Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB), http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/tsd/pcbs/ pubs/about.htm, Accessed on july 2011.
  2. Proceedings of the Subregional Awareness Raising Workshop on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Environment Programme, November 25-28th, 1997.
  3. Stanton Miller, The persistent PCB problem, Environ.Sci.Technol, Vol. 16, pp. 98A-99A, 1982.
  4. M Erickson, Analytical Chemistry of PCBs, Second Ed., Lewis Pub., CRC Pres., pp. 1-97, 1997.
  5. S K Shin, T S Kim, Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oils from Korea, J. Hazard. Mater. Vol.137 pp. 15141522, 2006.
  6. N Kannan, D E Schultz-Bull, G Petrick, J C Duinker, Environmental Analytical Chemistry of PCBs, Albaigés J., Ed., Gordon and Breach Sci. Pub., Singapore Vol.16, pp. 289-303, 1993.
  7. J Falandysz, N Yamashita, S Tanabe, R Tatsukawa, Environmental Analytical Chemistry of PCBs, Albaigés J., Ed., Gordon and Breach Sci. Pub., Singapore Vol. 16, pp. 305-312, 1993.
  8. M Paleologou, W C Purdy, Environmental Analytical Chemistry of PCBs, Albaigés J., Ed., Gordon and Breach Sci. Pub., Singapore Vol. 16, pp. 393-405, 1993.
  9. Guidelines for the identification of PCBs and materials containing PCBs, first issue, Prepared by UNEP chemicals, UN, UNEP 1999.
  10. R F Addison, PCB replacements in dielectric fluids, Environ. Sci. Technol. Vol. 17, pp. 486A-496A, 1983.
  11. M J Aaronson, J D Tessari, S M Bergin, PCBs inTransformer oil, Bull. Environm. Contam. Toxicol. Vol. 28, pp. 584-591, 1982.
  12. J N Ogata, J D Okun, J W Hylin, A Bevenue, Gas chromatographic method for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil, J. Chromatogr. A. Vol. 189, pp. 425-427, 1980.
  13. http://envfor.nic.in/downloads/publicinformation/ NIP-India.pdf, India National Implementation Plan, April 2011; http://www.unido.org, Final India NIP Evaluation Project Reports, November 2011.
  14. IEC 61619, Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-Method of determination by capillary column gas chromatography, 1997-04. First Edition.
  15. H A Robles Martínez, G C Rodríguez, D H Castillo, Determination of PCBs in Transformers Oil Using Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy and Aroclors (A1254:A1260), Chem. Soc. Vol. 49, pp. 263-270, 2005 .
  16. Y-C Na, K-J Kim, J Hong, J-J Seo, Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil using various adsorbents for solid phase extraction, Chemosphere, Vol. 73, pp. S7-S12, 2008.
  17. T Hyötyläinen, M Kallio, K Hartonen, M Jussila, S Palonen, M-L Riekkola, Modulator design for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: quantitative analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, Anal. Chem. Vol. 74, pp. 4441-4446, 2002.
  18. T R Glass, N Ohmura, Y Taemi, T Joh, Simple immunoassay for detection of PCBs in transformer oil, Environ. Sci. Technol. Vol. 39, pp. 5005-5009, 2005.
  19. E Storr-Hansen, Environmental Analytical Chemistry of PCBs, Albaigés J., Ed., Gordon and Breach Sci. Pub., Singapore Vol. 16, pp. 24-38, 1993.
  20. Robert J Gordon, Joseph Szita, Edward J Faeder, Determination of polychlorinated Biphenyls in Transformer oils by capillary Gas chromatography, Anal. Chem, Vol. 54, pp. 478-48, 1982.
  21. R Eganhouse, B Gould, D Olaguer, C Phinney, P Sherblom, Environmental Analytical Chemistry of PCBs, Albaigés J., Ed., Gordon and Breach Sci. Pub., Singapore Vol. 16, pp. 111-134, 1993.
  22. B Pavoni, A Sfriso, S Raccanelli, Environmental Analytical Chemistry of PCBs, Albaigés J., Ed., Gordon and Breach Sci. Pub., Singapore Vol. 16, pp. 101-110, 1993.
  23. D L Bedard, R J May, Characterization of the polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediments of Woods Pond: evidence for microbial dechlorination of Aroclor 1260, Environ Sci Technol., Vol. 30, pp. 237-245, 1996.
  24. J J Sauvain, L F De Alencastro, J Tarradella, R Camenzind, G Karlaganis, C F Vuilleumier, Comparison of four quantification methods for the determination of PCB in transformer oils, J Anal. Chem, Vol. 350, pp. 555-562, 1994.
  25. Marten Jartun, Rolf Tore Ottesen, Tore Volden, Qno Lundkvist, Local Sources of polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) in Russian and Norwegian settlements on spitsbergen island, Norway, Jl of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A : Current issues.
  26. J B Plomley, M Lauševic, R March, Determination of dioxins/furans and PCBs by quadrupole ion-trap gas chromatographymass spectrometry, Mass Spectrometry Rev., Vol. 19, pp. 305-365, 2000.
  27. R March, An Introduction to Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry, J. Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 32, pp. 351-369, 1997.
  28. Z Zhang, L Liu, Y F Li, D Wang, H Jia, T Harner, E Sverko, X Wan, J Ma, K Pozo, Analysis of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Concurrently Sampled Chinese Air and Surface Soil, Environ. Sci. Technol. Vol. 42, pp. 6514-6518, 2008.
  29. M Takada, H Toda, R Uchida, A new rapid method for quantification of PCBs in transformer oil, Chemosphere, Vol. 543, pp. 455-459, 2001.
  30. A Buah-Kwofie, P O Yeboah, J Pwamang, Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformers oil from some selected transformers in parts of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, Chemosphere, Vol. 82, pp.103-106, 2011.
  31. N Lambert, T S Fan, J F Pilette, Analysis of PCBs in waste oil by enzyme immunoassay, Sci. Total Environ., Vol. 196, pp. 57-61, 1997.